Thursday, October 13, 2016

Some thoughts on a simplified approach to ancient Greek grammar using only personal constructions. Since, both Infinitive and Participle constructions can be written as personal clauses with subordinating conjunctions, study of their syntax can be postponed.

Cover the 90% of greek verb morphology while ignoring the exceptions and rare. Instead of 6 principle parts, each verb has an imperfective and aorist stem via their infinitive. Regular verbs form the aorist from the imperfect by adding (s)a. Irregular verbs have an aorist reduced in some way from imperfect or an irregular form.
Past indicative has obligatory augment, either for carrying the stress or for disambiguating the 1st and 2nd plural.

Active endings for use when there is no returned action on subject (either partial or even figurative/implied)

PRESENT TENSES: after consonants or a/e/o uncontracted vowel stems (contains theme vowel): o^ eis ei omen ete onti
after vowels: mi si ti men te nti (not ousi)

PAST TENSES: after consonants (contains theme vowel): on es e omen ete on
after vowels: n s - men te n (all strong root aorists lengthen vowel)

IMPERATIVE: -(e) and -(e)te, etc

Medio-passive endings for use when there is either partial/implied returned action on subject or complete (reflexive); or subject receive action from (named) agent.

PRESENT TENSES: after consonants (contains theme vowel): omai esai etai ometha esthe ontai
after vowels: (remove theme vowel)

PAST TENSES: after consonants (contains theme vowel): ome^n eso eto ometha esthe onto
after vowels: (remove theme vowel)


SUBJUNCTIVE always uses the lengthened theme vowel endings (absorbs any stem vowel), OPTATIVE uses the stem plus iota plus the past endings without augment.

Example: te/mnein (regular aorist in -sa following rules, since there is no aorist form)
MinfVaAi te/mnein ; MparVaAi  te/mno^n
MimpVaAi: te/mne te/mneto^ te/mnete te/mnonto^n; (no past imperative)
MindVaAi: te/mn-o^ eis ei omen ete onti; e/temn-on es e omen ete on
MconVaAi: te/mn-o^ e^s e^ o^men e^te o^nti; te/mnoin ois oi oimen oite oin;
MimpVmpAi: ?
MindVmpAi: te/mnomai esai etai ometha esthe ontai; e/temnon es e omen ete on
MconVmpAi: te/mno^ e^s e^ o^men e^te o^nti; te/mnoin ois oi oimen oite oin

MinfVaAi tei/nai ; MparVaAi  tei/nas
MimpVaAa: tei/na tei/nate; --
MindVaAa: tei/nami.. ; e/teina  (present is not used in writing)
MconVaAi: tei/no^.. ; tai/naimi
MimpVmpAa: tei/naso teina/stho^ tai/nasthe teina/stho^n; (no past imperative)
MindVmpAa: tei/namai.. ; e/teiname^n  (present is not used in writing)
MconVmpAi: tei/no^mai.. ; tai/naime^n

PERFECT is with Perfect participle (redup + ko^s/kot-)  and einai.

learned as translations from personal subordinate clauses later
literature constantly footnoted until these are learned

Infinitives as hoti clauses when possible, nouns otherwise: need a way to automate this

Participles as hoti (adj) or epeide^,hote,kaiper (adv) clauses, with the verb in 3rd person and number taken from the participle, disregarding the case and number.